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正当防卫司法纠偏的刑事政策视角
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                                                       正当防卫司法纠偏的刑事政策视角

周详,李耀*

(中南财经政法大学,湖北武汉430073)

摘要:近来正当防卫的司法适用引起社会极大反响,也吸引学者对此展开教义研究。但就目前的研究而言,存在问题导向意识不足的问题。必须明确造成正当防卫司法认定偏差的原因,不仅在于理论构建不足,更多的是司法实际采取以“维稳”为主要思想的实际政策违背了刑事政策的正当性基础。而且正当防卫具备实质性与开放性的特征,教义学的理论建构注定无法实现其预期目的,必须在刑事政策上进行突破。当前刑事政策的司法适用中将非预防性因素、民事预防手段纳入进刑事政策范围内,对此必须进行修正:在司法理念层面,必须建立正当防卫的预防必要性判断机制,明确刑事政策之规范内涵、澄清正当防卫的预防内容并恪守谦抑性要求;在方法论上,进行以预防必要性为核心的纠偏尝试,对此可以在证据规则、过当标准与防卫前提内涵上进行改造,并效仿检察案例指导制度在正当防卫上建立背离报告制度。

关键词: 正当防卫制度  维稳  刑事政策学  司法纠偏  预防必要性

A Criminal Policy Perspective on Defending Justice Correction

Zhou Xiang, LI Yao

(Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan, Hubei 430073)

Abstract: Recently, the judicial application of legitimate defense has aroused great repercussions in society, and it has also attracted scholars to conduct research on this. However, as far as the current research is concerned, there is a problem of insufficient problem-oriented consciousness. It is necessary to clarify the reasons for the deviation of the legitimate defense judicial determination, not only because of the lack of theoretical construction, but also because the actual policy of the judicial practice to adopt "maintenance of stability" as the main idea violates the legitimate foundation of criminal policy. Moreover, legitimate defense has the characteristics of substantiveity and openness. The theoretical construction of doctrine is doomed to achieve its intended purpose, and a breakthrough must be made in criminal policy. In the judicial application of criminal policy, non-preventive factors and civil prevention measures are included in the scope of criminal policy. This must be amended: at the level of judicial concept, it is necessary to establish a judgment mechanism for the prevention of legitimate defense and clarify the norms of criminal policy. Connotation, clarify the content of prevention of legitimate defense and abide by the requirements of modesty; in terms of methodology, carry out corrective attempts based on the necessity of prevention, which can be reformed in the rules of evidence, standards of oversight and preconditions of defense, and follow The prosecutorial case guidance system establishes a deviation reporting system on legitimate defense.
Keywords: justifiable defense system; stable; criminal policy science; judicial correction; prevention necessity

 

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