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刑事缺席审判制度的源流、现状及分歧澄清
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刑事缺席审判制度的源流、现状及分歧澄清

陈伟 王文娟

(西南政法大学,重庆401120)


摘要:刑事缺席审判制度起源于古罗马时期,并为美国、法国、德国等国家吸收和认可,是在公正和效率、惩罚犯罪与保障人权之间价值平衡和选择的产物,既体现对贪腐等重大犯罪的打击力度,又兼顾对合法权益的人权保障,弥补刑事诉讼制度的漏洞。然而,目前刑事缺席审判制度在程序适用方面依旧存在四个较为突出的问题:一是刑事缺席审判程序适用范围界定问题,一体式的规定四类适用条件并列为特别程序仍需斟酌;二是“有证据证明被告人无罪”证明标准适宜性问题;三是刑事缺席审判制度上诉主体的妥当性问题;四是对已生效但尚未交付执行判决“重新审理”规定的合理性问题,以及该种救济途径并是否契合刑事诉讼理念等。

关键词:刑事缺席审判   证明标准   重新审理   终止审理  程序竞合

Clarification of The Qrigin Status Quo And Differences of The Criminal Trial System

Chen Wei   Wang wen juan

(Southwest University of Political Science and Law, Chongqing 401120)

Abstract: The criminal trial system of absentia originated in the Roman period and was absorbed and recognized by the United States, France, Germany and other countries. It is a product of the balance and choice between justice and efficiency, punishment of crime and protection of human rights. Such as the crackdown on major crimes, but also take into account the human rights protection of legitimate rights and interests, to make up for loopholes in the criminal litigation system. However, there are four outstanding problems in the application procedure of the criminal trial system: one is the definition of the scope of application of the trial procedure for criminal absence, and the four categories of applicable conditions for the integration of the provisions are still considered as special procedures; the second is that “the evidence is proved by the defendant. "The person is not guilty" proves the standard suitability problem; the third is the issue of the appropriateness of the appeal subject in the criminal trial system; the fourth is the rationality of the "retrial" of the judgment that has been in force but not yet delivered, and the remedy does not fit the litigation concept.

Key words: criminal trial in absentia; standard of proof; retrial; termination of            trial; procedure co-opetition


基金项目:2017年度司法部国家法治与法学理论研究项目““互联网+警务”背景下我国儿童失踪紧急反应机制构建研究”(编号:17SEB5011)2019年重庆市研究生科研创新项目“人工智能+情报反恐模式研究”(编号:CYS19165)

 

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