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新中国70年暂行法立法的回顾与前瞻
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新中国70年暂行法立法的回顾与前瞻

靳海婷

(中南财经政法大学 法学院,湖北 武汉 430073)

摘要:暂行法产生自新中国建立之初,并在我国法律体系形成过程中发挥着重要作用。通过暂行法发展历程的考察,暂行法立法数量增减与改革进程具有密切联系,可以证明暂行法是调节改革与立法关系的一种重要立法形式。依据立法数量的变化,暂行法发展可划分为萌芽、激增、首次下降以及下降缓和等四个阶段。各时期暂行法都有不同的存在原因,并在主体、内容、程序与法的构造等方面表现出各自特点。暂行法总体上形呈现出立法主体扩大与制度空间扩展、立法内容差异化、立法程序公开化与科学化、法的构造不断进化等趋势。暂行法历经七十年发展,立法实践有余但规范程度不足的问题凸显。欲实现暂行法“依法立法”的目标,维护法制统一,可通过限缩立法主体、限制立法权限、限定立法程序、完善法的构造等方式,实现暂行法的规范化发展。

关键词:暂行法;立法主体;立法权限;立法程序;法的构造

Retrospect and Prospect of temporary Law in the 70 Years since the Founding of The People’s Republic China

(School of Law, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430074,China)

Abstract: The temporary law came into being in the early stage of China's establishment and played an important role in the formation of China's legal system. Through the investigation of the development process of temporary law, the change of the number of the legislation of the temporary law is closely related to the reform process. This proves that the temporary law is an important legislative form to regulate the relationship between reform and legislation. According to the changes in the number of legislation, the development process of temporary law can be divided into four stages: germination, surge, first decline and moderation of decline. There are different reasons for the existence of temporary laws in different periods, and they have characteristics in subject, content, procedure and law construction. On the whole, the form of temporary law shows the trend of enlargement of legislative subject and system space, differentiation of legislative content, openness of legislative procedure, and continuous evolution of law structure. After 70 years of development, the legislative practice of temporary law is many, but the norms are not enough. By restricting the subject, restricting the authority, restricting the procedure and perfecting the construction of the law, we can achieve the goal of legislation according to law of the temporary law and maintain the unity of the legal system.

Keyword: The temporary law; Legislative subject; Legislative authority; Legislative procedure; The Construction of Law

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