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我们需要什么样的生态环境问责制度?
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我们需要什么样的生态环境问责制度?

——兼议生态环境损害赔偿中地方政府的两难困境

张梓太,程飞鸿

(复旦大学 法学院,上海 200438)

摘 要:我国的生态环境问责制度是一项以党内法规和生态环境政策为规范基础,并以《环保督察规定》、环保督察制度和问责依据为主体构成的制度。在实践中,它也拥有着基层性、广泛性和严厉性等三大特点。这样的属性和特点使得生态环境问责制度一方面对督促地方党委和政府履行生态环境保护职责,解决重大生态环境问题上大有裨益。但另一方面,也给地方政府带来了较大的政治压力,并继而影响到了生态环境损害赔偿制度的实施。在这种压力的影响下,如何引导地方政府积极提起生态环境损害赔偿诉讼就成为了亟待解决的问题。为此,我们首先需要构建生态环保领域干部容错机制,并实现生态环境问责制度法制化的改造,最后完成生态环境问责机制多元化的转变,以此赋予生态环境问责制度新的功能和使命。

关键词:生态环境问责;党政法治;中央环境保护督察;生态环境损害赔偿;地方政府;

What kind of ecological environment accountability system do we need?

——On the dilemma of local government in the compensation of ecological environment damage

Zhang Zi-tai,Cheng Fei-hong

(Law School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438 China)

Abstract: China's eco-environmental accountability system is a system based on the inner-party laws and regulations and eco-environmental policies, with the provisions of environmental supervision, the system of environmental supervision and the basis of accountability as the main body. In practice, it also has three characteristics of grass-roots, universality and severity. Such attributes and characteristics make the ecological environment accountability system. On the one hand, it has great help to urge local Party committees and governments to perform their responsibilities of ecological environment protection and solve major ecological environment problems. But on the other hand, it also brings great political pressure to the local government, and then affects the implementation of the ecological environment damage compensation system. Under the influence of this kind of pressure, how to guide the local government to actively bring the lawsuit of compensation for ecological environment damage has become an urgent problem to be solved. Therefore, we need to build a fault-tolerant mechanism for cadres in the field of ecological environmental protection, and realize the transformation of the legal system of the ecological environment accountability system, and finally complete the transformation of the diversification of the ecological environment accountability mechanism, so as to give the ecological environment accountability system a new function and mission.

Keywords: ecological environment accountability; party and government rule of law; central environmental protection supervision;compensation for ecological environmental damage; local government


 基金项目:国家社科基金重大专项《国家管辖范围外深海资源共享机制研究》(18VHQ010);环境保护部规划院2017年招标课题《生态环境损害赔偿立法建议》(2017A046)。

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