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“正当防卫”四十年:“于欢案”映射刑法第20条的修改
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               “正当防卫”四十年:“于欢案”映射刑法第20条的修改                         

                                 李 晓 明

              (苏州大学 王健法学院 江苏 苏州 215006)

   摘 要 自79刑法颁布以来至今已整整四十年,“正当防卫”几经博弈甚至97刑法中的重大修改,运行中仍然暴露出许多问题。尤其是山东“于欢案”的出现与发酵,透射着刑法第20条的亟待修改。文章通过对本案多层面的分析提出我国刑法中“正当防卫”立法上的一些缺陷与不足,包括对“不法侵害”的解读及修改,“明显超过必要限度”与“造成重大损害”的“绑定”关系,刑法第20条第1、2款“正当防卫”概念的歧义等。指出,“明显超过必要限度”应具有行为上的独立性与条件上的主导性,“造成重大损害的”应修改为“造成不应有重大损害的”,建议在“正当防卫”与“防卫过当”之上增设“防卫行为”的上位概念,以厘定相关的刑法规制关系。

关键词 正当防卫;“于欢案”;防卫过当;明显超过必要限度;造成不应有重大损害

Forty Years of "Self-Defense": The Amendment of Article 20 of the Transmission Criminal Law of "Yu Huan Case"

Abstract: Since the promulgation of the 79th Criminal Law, it has been forty years since the "self-defense" was adopted. After several major changes in the game and even in the 97 criminal law, many problems have still been exposed in the operation. In particular, the emergence and fermentation of the "Yu Huan Case" in Shandong Province transmit the urgent need to amend Article 20 of the Criminal Law. This article puts forward some defects and deficiencies in the legislation of "legitimate defense" in our country's criminal law through the analysis of the multidimensional aspects of this case, including the interpretation and modification of "unlawful infringement". The "binding" relationship between "obviously exceeding the necessary limit" and "causing major damage", and the ambiguity of the concept of "self-defense" in Article 20, paragraphs 1 and 2 of the Criminal Law. It is pointed out that "obviously exceeding the necessary limit" should have the independence of behavior and the dominance of conditions, and that "causing significant harm" should be revised to "causing no significant harm". It is suggested that the superior concept of "defensive behavior" should be added to "justifiable defense" and "excessive defense" to determine the relevant criminal law regulatory relations.

Key Words: Self-defence; "Yu Huan Case"; Too much defense; Obviously exceeding the necessary limits; Causing undue and significant harm

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