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民法典视野下网约车平台侵权的法律适用
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                                                   民法典视野下网约车平台侵权的法律适用

张素华、孙畅

(武汉大学法学院,武汉 430072)

摘要:民法典中未能设置专门的网约车条款,因此产生缺憾。但是网约车平台侵权问题并没有就此消失,在司法实践中,反而形成同案不同判的局面。这不仅削弱了法的安定性与可预期性,也违背了司法的正义理念与平等法则。在网约车条款缺席的前提下,裁判网约车平台侵权类型案件,应当在进行利益衡量的基础上,综合适用民法典(草案)第967条与第973条。其裁判路径应当实行两步判断法:第一步,判断网约车平台与网约车司机是否构成实质上的雇佣关系,如果构成,则适用用人单位责任;第二步,如果网约车平台与网约车司机不构成雇佣关系,则应当适用违反安全保障义务的责任。基于虚拟空间与实体空间的区别,网约车车平台承担安全保障义务应当具有一定的特殊性,即以安全标准与安全承诺作为义务违反的认定依据。

关键词:网约车平台;侵权责任;过错;裁判路径;法律适用

   

Legal Application of Ride-Hailing Platform Infringement under the Perspective of the Civil Code

ZHANG Su Hua, SUN Chang

(Law school of Wuhan university, Wuhan 430072, China)

The failure to include a specific articles in the Civil Code for ride-hailing platform infringement has resulted in shortcomings. However, the problem of infringement of the ride-hailing platform has not disappeared, but in judicial practice, created the situation of unequal treatment in the similar case. This not only undermines the certainty and predictability of the law, but also runs counter to the spirit of justice and equality of law. In the absence of the articles of the ride-hailing platform, the decision on the type of infringement of the ride-hailing platform shall be based on the weighing of interests and the combined application of articles 967 and 973 of the draft Civil Code. Its adjudication path should be a two-step judgment method: the first step, to determine whether the ride-hailing platform and driver constitute a substantive employment relationship, and if so, the responsibility of the employer liability; the second step, if the ride-hailing platform and the driver does not constitute an employment relationship, then the responsibility for breach of security obligations should apply. Based on the distinction between virtual space and physical space, there should be a certain specificity to the security obligations undertaken by the ride-hailing platform. Safety standards and safety commitments should be used as the basis for determining the breach of obligations.

Key Words: Ride-Hailing Platform; Tort liability; Fault; Judgment path; Legal Application

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