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《联合国海洋法公约》附件七仲裁庭管辖权的发展倾向和中国应对
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《联合国海洋法公约》附件七仲裁庭管辖权的发展倾向和中国应对

罗国强 于敏娜

(武汉大学 国际法研究所,湖北武汉,430061)

摘要:《联合国海洋法公约》在规则制定上存在缺失和模糊的弊病,附件七仲裁庭因唯一剩余方法和单方意志性的制度设计获得超越一般国际司法机构的强制管辖权,在程序运作上突破了契约性,堪称“司法化仲裁”。在一些国家推动下,附件七仲裁庭近年来不断违背国家意志扩张管辖权,其鼓励滥诉、贬低《联合国海洋法公约》争端解决机制公信力的不良后果已经显现。中国欲在危机四伏的国际环境中实现海洋强国,必须具备运用《联合国海洋法公约》争端解决机制维护国家利益的能力,并积极与其他国家展开对话,构建对《联合国海洋法公约》规则解释的法律认同,使附件七仲裁庭的运行回归正轨。

关键词:《联合国海洋法公约》;附件七仲裁庭;司法化仲裁;属事管辖权;中国策略

中图分类号:D990  文献标识码:A

The Developing Tendency of Jurisdiction of Arbitral Tribunals under Annex VII to United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and China’s Strategy

LUO Guo-qiang, YU Min-na

(Institute of Public International Law, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430061, China)

Abstract: There are legal vacuum and ambiguous provisions in United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Article 287 of UNCLOS grants Annex VII Arbitral Tribunals the compulsory jurisdiction beyond general international judicial institutions, which violates the contractual feature of arbitration and could be regarded as “judicial arbitration”. In recent years, with some countries supporting, Annex VII arbitral tribunals has been expanding its jurisdiction ratione materiae by violating consent of State Parties to UNCLOS. The negative effects such as encouraging States to abuse Annex VII arbitration and depreciating the credibility of UNCLOS dispute settlement system have emerged. Aiming to build the ocean power in the new era, China should cultivate the ability of using UNCLOS dispute settlement system to protect national interests, and actively engage in dialogue with other countries to achieve general accepted interpretation of key provisions of UNCLOS and lead the operation of the Annex VII arbitral tribunals back on track.

Key words: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; Annex VII Arbitral Tribunal; Judicial Arbitration; Jurisdiction ratione materiae; China’s Strategy

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