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渎职犯罪因果关系的判断方法
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渎职犯罪因果关系的判断方法*

姜  涛

(南京师范大学 法学院,江苏南京210023)

 

摘  要:渎职犯罪上的“重大损失”等不法结果,并不属于客观处罚条件,渎职犯罪认定无以客观归责论替代因果关系理论的必要。渎职犯罪的不法行为与不法结果之间往往是“多因一果”,主要原因力说可以解决渎职犯罪因果关系判断的难题,如果实行行为本身缺乏诱发介入行为的危险性,第三人或被害人的介入因素对严重损害等结果的发生具有决定性,且第三人或被害人的介入行为属于不具有预见的可能性的情况,则就不能以行为人制造现实的危险而认定不法行为与不法结果之间具有因果关系。主、次作用的判断是一个与职务相关的范畴,可以用职务相关性理论、客观的预见可能性与合法的替代理论予以解答,不可以把职务无法涵摄、客观上不具有预见可能性、可以合法替代的行为所带来的结果解释为原因。

关键词:渎职犯罪;因果关系;主要原因说;客观归责论;合法的替代理论

The Judgment Method of Causal Relationship of Malfeasance Crime

JIANG Tao(School of Law,Nanjing Normal University,Nanjing 210023,China)

Abstract: The illegal results such as "heavy loss" of malfeasance crime do not belong to the objective punishment conditions, so it is not necessary to replace the causality theory with the objective imputation theory in the determination of malfeasance crime. The relationship between the illegal act and the illegal result of dereliction of duty is often "multiple causes and one result", the main cause force theory can solve the problem of causality judgment of dereliction of malfeasance crime, if the act itself lacks the risk of inducing intervention, the intervention factors of the third party or the victim are decisive to the occurrence of serious damage and other results, and the intervention of the third party or the victim is not foreseeable, then the causal relationship between the illegal act and the illegal result can not be determined by the fact that the actor creates real danger. The judgment of the main and secondary functions is a category related to the job. It can be solved by the theory of job relevance, objective foreseeing possibility and legal substitution theory,We can't explain the result of the behavior that the duty can't contain, objectively has no foreseeing possibility and can be replaced legally as the reason.

Key words: crime of dereliction of duty; causality; the main reasons are as follows; objective imputation theory; legal substitution theory


 

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