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在 “奴隶是会说话的工具”错译背后
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                          在 “奴隶是会说话的工具”错译背后

                             ——论罗马私法中的Instrumentum[1]

  徐国栋

   (厦门大学 法学院,福建 厦门 361005)

摘 要:“奴隶是会说话的工具”的错译基于对拉丁法律术语Instrumentum的理解错误,该词并非“工具”的意思,而是“伴当”的意思,既包括无生命者,也包括有生命者。在农业经济的条件下,拉丁作者把土地看作中心物,把帮助土地发挥效用的诸要素看作土地的伴当,在遗嘱人有明示表示的情况下,土地应与其伴当一同移转,以此保持其生产力。在相反的情形,两者分别移转。罗马私法中还有职业性的Instrumentum、经营场所的Instrumentum、生活资料性的Instrumentum。Instrumentum概念在罗马私法中的存在表明,罗马人早就具有系统论的观念,认为各物并非孤立存在,而是相互关联存在或系统存在,而且人依赖一定的物而存在,因此以系统的方式处理中心者与其伴当的关系。

关键词:农场;附带伴当的农场;奴隶;遗赠;企业

Behind the Mistranslation of "slave is a talking tool"

On Instrumentum in Roman Private Law

XU Guo-dong

Abstract:The mistranslation of "slave is a talking tool " is based on the misunderstanding of the Latin legal term instrumentum, which is not the meaning of "tool" but the meaning of "accompanied by", including both inanimate and animate elements. Under the conditions of the agricultural economy, the Latin author regards the land as the central object and regards the elements that help the land to be effective as the companion of the land. In the case where the testator has expressly stated, the land should be transferred together with his companion in order to keep it productive. In the opposite case, the two can be transferred separately. In the Roman private law there are also professional instrumentum, instrumentum in the business premises, and instrumentum as living material. The existence of the instrumentum concept in Roman private law shows that the Romans had a systematical idea, convincing that things do not exist in isolation, but exist in interrelated or systematic existence, and that human beings depend on certain things. Therefore, the relationship between the central role and its partner should be handled in a systematic manner.

 Key word: Farm  Fundus cum instrument   Slave   Legacy   Enterprise


[1] 感谢正在米兰大学访学的周平奇同学为写作本文提供资料以及西南大学的陈庆博士提供希腊语咨询。

 

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