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也论违约方申请合同解除权兼评《民法典》第580条第2款
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也论违约方申请合同解除权

兼评《民法典》第580条第2款

张素华、杨孝通[1]

(武汉大学,湖北,武汉,430072)

摘  要:梳理《民法典》第580条第2款的前身可以发现,该条款是为了解决合同僵局问题,弥补《合同法》第110条的构造缺陷而设立的。该条款赋予了违约方申请合同解除权,而非合同解除权。司法实践对合同僵局下,违约方申请解除合同的态度也经历了从否定到肯定的变化。从解释论上对合同解除权重新审视可以发现,守约方享有的合同解除权是完全的合同解除权,既可以通过通知方式行使也可以通过公力救济途径进行;违约方享有的申请合同解除权则是形成诉权。法院应违约方申请,通过司法解除的方式终止合同权利义务关系,并非民法典首创,在合同法体系内已有先例。从申请合同解除权的定位和功能以及限制条件证成赋予违约方申请合同解除权是立法对实践的回应。违约方行使申请合同解除权也并非是任意的,该条款虽然在体系上存在一些瑕疵,但是可以通过合理的解释予以消解。

关键词:申请合同解除权;合同解除权;合同僵局;司法解除;违约方解除

中图分类号:DF525         文献标识码:A

On the breaching party's right to apply for contract cancellation and comment on Article 580, paragraph 2 of the Civil Code

ZHANG Su-hua,YANG Xiao-tong

(Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China)

Abstract:  After reviewing the predecessor of Article 580, Section 2 of the Civil Code, it can be found that this article was established to resolve the problem of contract deadlock and make up for the structural defects of Article 110 of the Contract Law. This clause gives the breaching party the right to apply for contract cancellation rather than the contract cancellation right. Under the impasse of the judicial practice on the contract, the attitude of the breaching party applying for termination of the contract has also undergone a change from negative to positive. Reexamination of the right to terminate the contract from the perspective of interpretation shows that the right to terminate the contract enjoyed by the observant party is a complete right to terminate the contract, which can be exercised either by notice or through public relief channels; The right is to form the right to sue. The court should apply to the breaching party to terminate the contractual rights and obligations through judicial release. It is not the first in the Civil Code, and there is a precedent in the contract law system. From the position and function of the application for the right to terminate the contract, as well as the limitation and justification, the granting of the right to apply for the termination of the contract by the breaching party is the legislative response to practice. It is not arbitrary for the breaching party to exercise the right to apply for contract cancellation. Although this clause has some flaws in the system, it can be resolved by a reasonable explanation.

Keywords: right to apply for contract cancellation; contract cancellation right; contract deadlock; judicial termination; breach of contractor

 

                        

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